Science of Micronutrients Intake for Fat Loss, Muscle Gain & Strength
This is the fourth in the series of six articles, it is intended to help people arrive at informed decisions based on science about their nutrition requirements and program for fat loss, muscle gain and building strength so that they can avoid making mistakes. It is not intended as a substitute for medical advice or medical treatment.
The term micronutrients generally refers to vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients and zoonutrients. Vitamins and minerals are vital to human body for healthy development, disease prevention, and wellbeing. They have numerous important roles in the functioning of the body and brain, and yet human bodies cannot manufacture most of them. Fitness enthusiasts tend to pay a lot of attention to the macronutrients in their diets: proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. But importance of micronutrients cannot be overlooked.
Vitamins: A vitamin is an essential micronutrient which human body needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the body, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. With the exception of vitamin D, micronutrients are not produced in the body and must be derived from the diet (Source: link)
Vitamins help in energy production, immune function, blood clotting and other functions. For example, B-vitamins like B12 and folate are required for protein synthesis to build muscle and repair tissues after physical activity. (Source: link)
Minerals: Minerals are important for human body to stay healthy. Human body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. Minerals play a role in growth, bone health, fluid balance and several other processes. For example, Calcium is not only required for strong bones and teeth, but it is also vital for muscle contraction and energy metabolism. (Source: link)
Phytonutrients: Phytonutrients are natural chemicals or compounds produced by plants. They have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can help support a healthy human body. Phytonutrients are also known for other characteristics such as carotenoids (beneficial for eye health), flavonoids (protect against cancer and cardiovascular diseases), glucosinolates (help to eliminate toxins in the body). There are thousands of phytonutrients found in plants and related foods. (Source: link)
Zoonutrients: Zoonutrients refer to natural health promoting components found in animal products that may prevent or cure disease. The term ‘Zoochemicals’ was coined by Anthony Amada – a nutritional biochemist at Myogenix in Palo Alto, California – to describe healthful compounds in animal products including fish, eggs, dairy products and meat. (Source: link)
They are the animal equivalent of phytochemicals in plants. They are compounds in animals that are believed to provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients that food contains. (Source: link)
During a fitness program it is essential to keep track of vitamin intake. Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Vitamin A acts as a regulator of cell and tissue growth and differentiation. Vitamin D provides a hormone-like function, regulating mineral metabolism for bones and other organs. The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them. Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants. Both deficient and excess intake of a fat-soluble vitamin can potentially cause clinically significant illness, although excess intake of water-soluble vitamins is less likely to do so. (Source: link)
Each vitamin has a specific recommended intake (called RDA – Recommended Daily Allowance) for a normal healthy person. Because vitamins are present in very small amounts as natural components of certain foods, maintaining intake of the specific ratio needed for normal physiological functioning (growth etc.) can be challenging. During a fitness program whether cutting, bulking, weight training, sweat losses and countless other processes that deplete the body of valuable nutrients, it is important to keep a watch on doses of each vitamin while keeping vitamin intake within a safe range.
Below are listed some of the important vitamins, both fat-soluble and water-soluble to keep a watch. It is important to remember that “Both deficient and excess intake of a fat-soluble vitamin can potentially cause clinically significant illness, although excess intake of water-soluble vitamins is less likely to do so.”
- Vitamin A – Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in many foods. Vitamin A is important for normal vision, the immune system, and reproduction. Vitamin A also helps the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs work properly. (Source: link)
The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin A is 900 mcg and 700 mcg per day for men and women, respectively — which can be easily reached by following a whole-foods diet. However, it’s important not to exceed the tolerable upper limit (UL) of 10,000 IU (3,000 mcg) for adults to prevent toxicity.
- Vitamin D – Vitamin D helps regulate the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body. These nutrients are needed to keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone deformities such as rickets and bone pain caused by a condition called osteomalacia in adults. (Source: link)
The recommended daily amount of vitamin D is 400 international units (IU) for children up to age 12 months, 600 IU for ages 1 to 70 years, and 800 IU for people over 70 years. (Source: link)
- Vitamin E – Vitamin E is a nutrient that body needs to support immune system and help cells to regenerate. It also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that make getting enough essential for everyday health. Vitamin E is most commonly known for its benefits for skin health and appearance. It may prevent coronary heart disease, support immune function, prevent inflammation, promote eye health, and lower the risk of cancer.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin E for males and females ages 14 years and older is 15 mg daily (or 22 international units, IU) (Source: link)
- Vitamin K – Vitamin K helps to make various proteins that are needed for blood clotting and the building of bones. Prothrombin is a vitamin K-dependent protein directly involved with blood clotting. Osteocalcin is another protein that requires vitamin K to produce healthy bone tissue. It also helps wounds to heal.
The recommended adequate intake for vitamin K depends on age and gender. Women aged 19 years and over should consume 90 micrograms (mcg) a day, and men should have 120 mcg. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B1 (thiamine) – Vitamin B1, or thiamine, helps prevent complications in the nervous system, brain, muscles, heart, stomach, and intestines. It is also involved in the flow of electrolytes into and out of muscle and nerve cells. Without enough B1, contractibility of muscle tissue and recovery from intensive training are made all the more difficult.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for men ages 19 and older is 1.2 mg daily, and for women in the same age range 1.1 mg daily. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) – Vitamin B2 helps break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. It plays a vital role in maintaining the body’s energy Riboflavin helps convert carbohydrates into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The human body produces ATP from food, and ATP produces energy as the body requires it.
The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin B2 in for men aged 19 years and over is 1.3 milligrams per day, and for women, it is 1.1 milligram per day. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B3 (niacin) – Vitamin B-3, also known as niacin, plays a role in converting the food we eat into energy. It helps the body to use proteins and fats, and it keeps the skin, hair, and nervous system healthy. Other benefits of vitamin B-3 stem from its potential cholesterol-lowering, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Dietary Supplement Label Database recommend 16 milligrams (mg) a day of vitamin B-3 for anyone of 4 years of age or over who is consuming a 2,000-calorie diet. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) – Vitamin B5 helps to break down fats. It has been studied for a potential role in reducing cholesterol levels in people who have dyslipidemia, a condition in which there is an abnormally high concentration of fat or lipids in the blood (e.g., LDL “bad” cholesterol, triglycerides), and low levels of HDL “good” cholesterol. For bodybuilding, cholesterol is very important because it is the primary precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones such as testosterone. Cholesterol also boosts vitamin D, which enhances bone health by assisting the absorption of calcium. It supports the health of the digestive tract and proteins, carbs, and fats are used to maximum effect.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for men and women ages 19+ years is 5 mg daily. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) – Vitamin B6 has many functions in the body, and it plays a role in over 100 enzyme reactions. One of its main roles is in helping the body metabolize proteins, fats, and carbohydrates for energy. This vitamin is also involved in immune system function, brain development during, pregnancy and infancy, creating neurotransmitters, including serotonin and dopamine, creating haemoglobin, which is the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen.
The recommended dietary allowances (RDA) of vitamin B6 for age groups 14–18, 19-50, and 51+ years are 1.3 mg, 1.3 mg and 1.7 mg respectively for male and 1.2 mg, 1.3 mg and 1.5 mg respectively for female. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B7 (biotin) – Vitamin B7 (Biotin) plays a vital role in assisting enzymes to break down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in food. It also helps to regulate signals sent by cells and the activity of genes. It promotes appropriate function of the nervous system and is essential for liver metabolism as well. Biotin is commonly advised as a dietary supplement for strengthening hair and nails, as well as in skin care. It is suggested that biotin aids cell growth and the maintenance of mucous membranes. Nervous system irregularities (including poor coordination and muscle tone) and muscle cramping due to impaired ability to regulate sugar may also result from a B 7 deficiency.
An RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) does not exist for biotin because there is not enough evidence to suggest a daily amount needed by most healthy people. Instead, there is an AI (Adequate Intake) level, which is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy. The AI for biotin for men and women 19 years and older and for pregnant women is 30 micrograms daily. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) – Vitamin B12 is a nutrient that helps keep the body’s nerve and blood cells healthy and helps make DNA, the genetic material in all cells. Vitamin B12 also helps prevent a type of anaemia called megaloblastic anaemia that makes people tired and weak. Vitamin B12 has been linked to weight loss and energy enhancing. It also helps the body convert fats and proteins into energy.
The RDA for adults is 2.4 μg/day of vitamin B12. Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may be unable to absorb naturally occurring vitamin B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with vitamin B12 or a vitamin B12-containing supplement. (Source: link)
- Vitamin C – Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is necessary for the growth, development and repair of all body tissues. It’s involved in many body functions, including formation of collagen, absorption of iron, the proper functioning of the immune system, wound healing, and the maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 90 mg/day for adult men and 75 mg/day for adult women. The upper limit is 2,000 mg a day. Although too much dietary vitamin C is unlikely to be harmful, mega doses of vitamin C supplements might cause: Diarrhoea. (Source: link)
Vitamins and minerals act in concert. Human body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. They also convert food into energy, and repair cellular damage. The essential minerals include calcium, zinc, iron, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sulfur, chloride, iodine, fluoride, copper, selenium, chromium and cobalt.
- Calcium – Body needs calcium to build and maintain strong bones. Your heart, muscles and nerves also need calcium to function properly. Some studies suggest that calcium, along with vitamin D, may have benefits beyond bone health: perhaps protecting against cancer, diabetes and high blood pressure. Calcium deficiencies can negatively impact bone health.
The Institute of Medicine has set dietary reference intake (DRI) and recommended daily allowance (RDA) standards for calcium. Getting this amount from the food you eat, with or without supplements, may be enough to keep your bones healthy. Doctors may recommend higher doses. The recommendations are age 9 – 18: 1300 mg/day, age 19 – 50: 1000 mg/day, age 51 – 70: 1200 mg/day (women) 1000 mg/day (men) and age 70+: 1200 mg/day (Source: link)
- Zinc – Zinc, a nutrient found throughout body, helps immune system and metabolism function. Zinc is also important to wound healing and sense of taste and smell. Zinc deficiencies can negatively impact metabolism.
The recommended daily amount of zinc is 8 milligrams (mg) for women and 11 mg for adult men. (Source: link)
- Iron – Iron helps to preserve many vital functions in the body, including general energy and focus, gastrointestinal processes, the immune system, and the regulation of body temperature. Iron deficiencies can negatively impact strength.
The amount of iron needed is: 8.7mg a day for men over 18, 14.8mg a day for women aged 19 to 50 and 8.7mg a day for women over 50. (Source: link)
- Phosphorus – The main function of phosphorus is in the formation of bones and teeth. It plays an important role in how the body uses carbohydrates and fats. It is also needed for the body to make protein for the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells and tissues. Phosphorus works with the B vitamins. It also helps with Kidney function, Muscle contractions, Normal heartbeat and Nerve signalling. (Source: link)
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for phosphorus is the following: adults (ages 19 years and older): 700 mg. children (ages 9 to 18 years): 1,250 mg.
- Sodium – The human body requires a small amount of sodium to conduct nerve impulses, contract and relax muscles, and maintain the proper balance of water and minerals. It is estimated that we need about 500 mg of sodium daily for these vital functions. (Source: link)
- Potassium – Potassium is one of the most important minerals in the body. It helps regulate fluid balance, muscle contractions and nerve signals. What’s more, a high-potassium diet may help reduce blood pressure and water retention, protect against stroke and prevent osteoporosis and kidney stones. (Source: link)
Because lack of potassium is rare, there is no RDA or RNI for this mineral. However, it is thought that 1600 to 2000 mg (40 to 50 milliequivalents [mEq]) per day for adults is adequate. Remember: The total amount of potassium that you get every day includes what you get from food and what you may take as a supplement. (Source: link)
- Magnesium – Magnesium is involved in hundreds of biochemical reactions in human body including Energy creation, Protein formation from amino acids, Gene maintenance, Muscle movements and Nervous system regulation. Magnesium also plays a role in boosting exercise performance.
The daily Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for elemental magnesium are: 19-30 years, 400 mg (men) and 310 mg (women); 31 years and older, 420 mg (men) and 320 mg (women). (Source: link)
- Manganese – Manganese is a trace mineral. It is vital for the human body, but people only need it in small amounts. Manganese contributes to many bodily functions, including the metabolism of amino acids, cholesterol, glucose, and carbohydrates. It also plays a role in bone formation, blood clotting, and reducing inflammation.
The daily Adequate Intake (AI) levels for manganese are: men age 19 and older, 2.3 mg; women 19 and older, 1.8 mg (Source: link)
- Copper – Copper is an essential nutrient for the body. Together with iron, it enables the body to form red blood cells. It helps maintain healthy bones, blood vessels, nerves, and immune function, and it contributes to iron Sufficient copper in the diet may help prevent cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, too.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adult men and women is 900 μg/day. (Source: link)
- Selenium – Selenium is a nutrient that the body needs to stay healthy. Selenium is important for reproduction, thyroid gland function, DNA production, and protecting the body from damage caused by free radicals and from infection. (Source: link)
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adult men and women 19+ years of age is 55 micrograms daily (Source: link)
- Chromium – Chromium helps metabolize macronutrients (protein, carbs, and fat) and provide energy to the muscles and brain.
Adequate Intakes (AIs) for Chromium are for age 19–50 years 35 mcg for male and 25 mcg for female, and for age 51+ years 30 mcg for male and 20 mcg for female. (Source link)
FOOD SOURCS OF VITAMINS & MINERALS
Reducing calories intake and macronutrients intake can result into micronutrient deficiencies. Micronutrient deficiencies impact health and this can disrupt training efforts. By including certain fruits and vegetable in diet risk of such deficiencies can be eliminated.
- Vitamin A – Good sources of vitamin A (retinol) include: cheese, eggs, oily fish, fortified low-fat spreads, milk and yoghurt, liver and liver products such as liver pâté (this is a particularly rich source of vitamin A, so you may be at risk of having too much vitamin A if you have it more than once a week) (Source: link)
- Vitamin D – Cod liver oil, Salmon, Swordfish, Tuna fish, Orange juice fortified with vitamin D, Dairy and plant milks fortified with vitamin D, Sardines, Beef liver, Egg yolk, Fortified cereals. (Source: link)
- Vitamin E – Vitamin E is found in plant-based oils, nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables. Wheat germ oil, Sunflower, safflower, and soybean oil, Sunflower seeds, Almonds, Peanuts, peanut butter, Beet greens, collard greens, spinach, Pumpkin, Red bell pepper, Asparagus, Mango, Avocado. (Source: link)
- Vitamin K – The most common sources of vitamin K in the U.S. diet are spinach; broccoli; iceberg lettuce; and fats and oils, particularly soybean and canola oil. Few foods are fortified with vitamin K; breakfast cereals are not typically fortified with vitamin K, although some meal replacement shakes and bars are. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B1 (thiamine) – Thiamine is found in many types of food. Good sources include: peas, some fresh fruits (such as bananas and oranges), nuts, wholegrain breads, and some fortified breakfast cereals, liver. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) – Good sources of riboflavin include: milk, eggs, fortified breakfast cereals, mushrooms, plain yoghurt. UV light can destroy riboflavin, so ideally these foods should be kept out of direct sunlight. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B3 (niacin) – Good sources of niacin include: meat, fish, wheat flour, eggs. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) – Pantothenic acid is found in varying amounts in almost all vegetables, wholegrain foods and meats, but good sources include: chicken, beef, liver and kidneys, eggs, mushrooms, avocado. Breakfast cereals are also a good source if they have been fortified with pantothenic acid. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) – Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods, including: , pork, poultry, such as chicken or turkey, some fish, peanuts, soya beans, wheat germ, oats, bananas, milk, some fortified breakfast cereals. (Source: link)
- Vitamin B7 (biotin) – Biotin is needed in very small amounts to help the body make fatty acids. The bacteria that live naturally in your bowel are able to make biotin, so it’s not clear if you need any additional biotin from the diet. Biotin is also found in a wide range of foods, but only at very low levels. (Source: link)
Foods that contain the most biotin include organ meats, eggs, fish, meat, seeds, nuts, and certain vegetables (such as sweet potatoes). (Source: link)
- Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) – Good sources include: meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, and some fortified breakfast cereals. (Source: link)
- Vitamin C – Vitamin C is found in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables. Good sources include: citrus fruit, such as oranges and orange juice, peppers, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, potatoes. (Source: link)
- Calcium – Sources of calcium include: milk, cheese and other dairy foods, green leafy vegetables – such as curly kale, okra and spinach, soya drinks with added calcium, bread and anything made with fortified flour, fish where you eat the bones – such as sardines and pilchards. (Source: link)
- Zinc – Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. Other good food sources include beans, nuts, certain types of seafood (such as crab and lobster), whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products. (Source: link)
Good sources of zinc for vegetarians include whole grains, tofu, tempeh, legumes, nuts and seeds, fortified breakfast cereals and dairy products. (Source: link)
- Iron – Top animal-based sources of iron include: liver (chicken, lamb), sardines, kangaroo, beef, lamb, egg (chicken), duck, and canned salmon. Plant-based sources of iron: Plant foods containing non-haem iron can still provide an adequate amount of iron for the body. Good sources include: legumes (such as lentils, beans and chickpeas), firm tofu, tempeh, pumpkin seeds (pepitas) and sunflower seeds, nuts, especially cashews and almonds, wholegrain cereals such as oats or muesli, whole meal bread, brown rice, amaranth and quinoa, dried apricots, vegetables such as kale, broccoli, spinach and green peas, dried apricots. (Source: link)
- Phosphorus – Phosphorus is highest in these foods: Meats and other proteins: beef, chicken, fish, and organ meat like liver, Milk and dairy foods: eggs, cottage cheese, and ice cream, Beans: navy, kidney, soy, pinto, and garbanzo, Grains: bran and wheat germ, Nuts and seeds: almonds, cashews, peanut butter, and sunflower seeds. (Source: link)
- Sodium – Salt and sodium are often used interchangeably, but they’re not exactly the same thing. Sodium is a mineral that occurs naturally in foods or is added during manufacturing or both. Table salt is a combination of sodium and chloride. By weight, it’s about 40 percent sodium and 60 percent chloride.
The approximate amount of sodium in 1 teaspoon salt = 2,300 mg sodium.
Sodium occurs naturally in some foods and is often added during manufacturing. Of course, we also add it during cooking and at the table too. Celery, beets and milk are a few of the foods where you’ll find it naturally. Packaged and prepared foods, like canned soups, lunch meats and frozen dinners, often have sodium added during manufacturing — either as salt or other common forms of sodium, like baking soda. (Source: link)
- Potassium – Many fresh fruits and vegetables are rich in potassium: Bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, honeydew, apricots, grapefruit (some dried fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and dates, are also high in potassium), Cooked spinach, Cooked broccoli, Potatoes, Sweet potatoes, Mushrooms, Peas, Cucumbers, Zucchini, Pumpkins, Leafy greens. Certain dairy products, such as milk and yogurt, are high in potassium (low-fat or fat-free is best). Some fish contain potassium: Tuna, Halibut, Cod, Trout, Rockfish. Beans or legumes that are high in potassium include:, Lima beans, Pinto beans, Kidney beans, Soybeans, Lentils. Other foods that are rich in potassium include: Salt substitutes (read labels to check potassium levels), Molasses, Nuts, Meat and poultry, Brown and wild rice, Bran cereal, Whole-wheat bread and pasta. (Source: link)
- Magnesium – Magnesium is widely distributed in plant and animal foods and in beverages. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, are good sources. In general, foods containing dietary fiber provide magnesium. Magnesium is also added to some breakfast cereals and other fortified foods. (Source: link)
There is a good list of magnesium rich foods at link
- Manganese – Manganese is present in a wide variety of foods, including whole grains, clams, oysters, mussels, nuts, soybeans and other legumes, rice, leafy vegetables, coffee, tea, and many spices, such as black pepper. (Source: link)
- Copper – The richest dietary copper sources include shellfish, seeds and nuts, organ meats, wheat-bran cereals, whole-grain products (Source: link)
- Selenium – Many whole grains and dairy products, including milk and yogurt, are good sources of selenium. Some ready-to-eat breakfast cereals are fortified with selenium, and some fruits and vegetables contain selenium. Pork, beef, turkey, chicken, fish, shellfish, and eggs contain high amounts of selenium. Some beans and nuts, especially Brazil nuts, contain selenium. (Source: link)
- Chromium – Many whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are good sources of chromium. Lean meats, nuts, poultry, and eggs contain chromium. (Source: link)
Fruits and Vegetables
Bodybuilding is centered on building body’s muscles through exercises, weightlifting and nutrition. Fruits and vegetables are great sources of micronutrients. In order to maximize results from the gym one focuses on diet and is mostly fine for the micronutrients one gets in meat, dairy, and starchy carbs but it is important not to skip fruits and vegetables.
Vegetables particularly rich in nitrates include green leafy vegetables such as spinach and lettuce as well as fennel, rocket, radishes, Chinese cabbage, and parsley. An increase in nitrate intake elevates plasma nitrate concentration, which increases the amount of oxygen supplied to muscle tissue, reducing the cost of exercise and improving exercise tolerance.
A good guideline is to scale fruit and vegetable intake based on calorie intake.
|Calorie Intake||Fruits and Vegetable Intake (US Cups (250 ml) / Per Day)|
|1200 – 2000||2 cups|
|2000 – 3000||3 cups|
|3000 – 4000||4 cups|
5 A Day
5 A Day is any of various national campaigns in developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, to encourage the consumption of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables each day, following a recommendation by the World Health Organization that individuals consume “a minimum of 400g of fruit and vegetables per day (excluding potatoes and other starchy tubers).”
Following 5 A Day is a good way to manage micronutrients intake. (Source: link)
Fiber delivers a lot of health benefits. It increases digestive and bowel health, fuels healthy gut bacteria. However, both too much and too little fiber can be detrimental. In the US the current recommendations for fiber intake are 14 g/1000 kcals. Constipation can be a sign that you’re eating too little; very loose stools a sign that you’re eating too much.
|Fiber-rich foods||Grams per serving size|
|boiled split peas and lentils; black, lima, and baked beans||10-15 g per cup|
|green peas, boiled||8.8 g per cup|
|raspberries||8 g per cup|
|cooked whole wheat spaghetti||6.3 g per cup|
|cooked barley||6 g per cup|
|medium pear with skin||5.5 g per pear|
|medium oat bran muffin||5.2 g per muffin|
|medium apple with skin||4.4 g per apple|
|bran flakes||5.5 g per 3/4 cup|
|cooked instant oatmeal||4 g per cup|
|brown rice||3.5 g per cup|
|boiled Brussel sprouts||4.1 g per cup|
|almonds||3 g per 1 oz. (23 almonds|
|chia seeds||10.6 g per 1 oz. (2 tbsp.)|
There are potential performance benefits of eating fruits and vegetables. They have fiber and micronutrients that can’t be put into a pill or powder. Hence, it is best to eat them.
One guideline is to drink about 50 ml (1.7 fl. oz.) per kilogram body weight throughout the day. However, some people sweat more than others. Different climates and activity levels also affect water intake. Therefore setting water intake based on body weight is not advisable.
One suggestions is:
- Aim to be peeing clear by noon.
- Have five clear urinations a day.
- Make sure that you’re not dehydrated at the time of workout or workout will be negatively impacted.
- Taper water intake toward the end of the day as needed so you don’t have to wake to pee.
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Reference have mostly been provided inline in the article, some references that were not included inline are being given below.
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin D
Abhinav Malhotra is an award-winning personal trainer, coach and sports nutritionist in Dubai, UAE. He also offers online services to clients around the world. A personal trainer par excellence, Abhi has worked with the world’s leading fitness chains, supplement brands and founded his own fitness academy in India. He has achieved successes for many clients from all backgrounds and has trained the Indian Army Rugby Team. He is the first International Kettlebell Sport athlete from India.